Demineralization is the process of removing mineral salts from Water by using the ion exchange method. Demineralised Water is completely free or almost of dissolved minerals .
Demineralized Water also known as Deionized Water, has had its mineral ions removed. The most commonly present Mineral ions in water are calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, chloride, sulphate, carbonates , nitrate, etc.
Demineralization is a physical process which uses ion exchange resins process for the replacement of the mineral salts in Water with H+ and OH– ions. As the most of water impurities are dissolved salts, demineralization produces a very high purity Water that is generally similar to distilled Water. This process is quick and without scale buildup . DM water treatment technology is the proven process for pre treatment of Water. A Demineralization plant produces mineral free Water by ion exchange, Degasification, and polishing. Demineralized Water System has various application in the field of steam, power, pharmaceuticals , process, and cooling.
Demineralization Principle :
In pre treatment of Raw water, Raw Water is passed through two ion exchange resins beds. While the cations get exchanged with hydrogen ions in first Cationic bed or cation resin vessel , the anions are exchanged with hydroxyl ions, in the second one known as anionic bed or anion resin vessel.
Demineralization Process :
Ion-exchange is a fast and reversible process in which ionic impurities present in the Water are swapped by ions released by an ion-exchange resin. The impurities are taken up by the resin, which must be periodically regenerated to restore it to the original ionic form. Following ions are found in water :
- Calcium (Ca2+)
- Magnesium (Mg2+)
- Sodium (Na+)
- Potassium (K+)
- Carbonate (CO32-)
- Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
- Chloride ( Cl–)
- Nitrate (NO3-)
Ion Exchange Resins used in DM Plants : Two basic types of resin used in deionization system are – cation resin and anion resin . Cation exchange resins will release Hydrogen ions or other positively charged ions in exchange for other cationic impurities present in the Water while Anion exchange resins will release hydroxyl ions or other negatively charged ions in exchange for anionic impurities present in the Water.
Ion-exchange technology in Water treatment and purification :
Firstly , cation exchange resins alone can be used to soften water ; secondly, anion exchange resins can be used for nitrate removal or organic scavenging ; and thirdly a mixed- bed , combinations of cation-anion exchange resins can be used to remove virtually all the ionic impurities present in the raw water, a process known as deionization. Water deionizers purification process results in water of exceptionally high quality and low in TDS.
For many laboratory, pharmaceuticals and industrial applications, high-purity Water which is free from ionic impurities is required. Water of this quality can be produced by Demineralization plants .The two most common types of deionization are :
• Two-bed deionization
• Mixed-bed deionization
The two-bed deionizer consists of two vessels in DM Plant – First one containing a cation-exchange resin in the hydrogen form and the other containing an anion resin in the hydroxyl form. Water flows through the cation column first , whereupon all the cations are exchanged for hydrogen (H+) ions. Water is electrically balanced as , for every mono valent cation, e.g. Sodium , one (H+) ion is exchanged and for every divalent cation, e.g. Ca2+, two hydrogen ions are exchanged. The same principle applies when considering anion-exchange. Water free of cation then flows through the anion bed . This time, all the negatively charged ions are exchanged for (OH–) which then combine with the hydrogen ions to form Water .
In DM Plant , mixed-bed deionizers unit has the cation-exchange and anion-exchange resins are mixed and contained in a single pressure vessel. The mixture of cation- anion exchange resin in a single a vessel makes a mixed-bed deionizer equivalent to a series of two-bed plants. Therefore , the Water quality obtained from a mixed-bed deionizer is superior than that produced by a two-bed plant. Mixed-bed is normally used to ‘polish’ the Water to higher levels of purity in terms of TDS and conductivity after it has been initially treated by either a two-bed deionizer or a reverse osmosis unit.
- Variety of cost effective models.
- User friendly, low maintenance and easy to install.
- Simpler distribution and collection systems.
- Top mounted, side mounted multiport valves with the necessary high pressure PVC piping.
- Single valve operation .
- Rust free
- Less electricity consumption
- Economical Major Applications of DM Plants :
- Boilers feed Water, Pharmaceuticals ,Textiles, Chemicals, Breweries, Swimming pools, Potable Water, Hospitals, Automobile, and Battery, Fertilizers, pharmaceuticals , Food industries.
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